Contemporary Women's Issues Search interface combines the flexibility of Boolean search operators with the convenience of automatic stemming. CWI's search interface offers the ability to apply complex search logic to a query. 

Keywords & Word Phrases
Words in Title
Book Author
Article Author
Subject Area
Geo Region
Article Type
Publication Type
Using Multi-Select
Boolean Operators

Proximity Operators
Operator Precedence

Subject Thesaurus

Boolean Operators         back to top
Use the Boolean AND, OR, NOT operators in the Full text field.

AND Operator         back to top
Use AND to require multiple terms to be found in an article.

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For Example:  Searching for rape and prostitution in the Full text field will retrieve only articles that include both terms.

OR Operator         back to top
Use OR to find alternate terms in a search statement.

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For Example:   Searching for rape or prostitution  will retrieve articles which include at least one of the terms, but not necessarily both terms.

NOT Operator         back to top
Use NOT to exclude words from a search statement.

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For Example: Searching for internet not sex will limit the search to articles that include the word internet but not those that include the word sex..

Using Parentheses         back to top
Use PARENTHESES to group or override normal term precedence.

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For Example: Searching for cancer and (uterine or ovarian) will retrieve articles that include cancer and either uterine or ovarian.. (Without the parentheses the example above would have resulted in articles that include both cancer and uterine OR those that included ovarian.)

The table below summarizes Boolean functionality.         back to top

Operator Action
AND Finds only documents containing all of the specified words. earnings and equity finds documents with both the word earnings and the word equity..
OR Finds documents containing at least one of the specified words or phrases. earnings or equity finds documents with either the word earnings or the word equity. The found documents may contain more than one of the specified terms, but do not have to.
NOT Excludes documents containing the specified word or phrase. The search equity not gender finds documents with equity but not containing gender.  NOT may only be used to join two parts of a query together.  Queries like NOT gender are not supported.
(  ) Parentheses are used to group terms or to override normal term precedence. For example, equity and (pay or gender) finds documents that include the term equity and either pay OR gender

The NEAR Operator         back to top
The NEAR operator searches for terms that occur within a specified number of words of each other regardless of order.  The second term may appear in the text prior the first term. Stopwords can exist between the two search terms.

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For Example: women near business will retrieve articles in which the two words appear either prior or subsequent to each other but within one word of each other with the exception of stopwords.  i.e. women in business, businesses for women etc.

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For Example: dowry near5 bride will retrieve articles in which the terms biracial OR bi-racial appears either prior or subsequent to adoption by 3 words or less.

The table below summarizes Proximity functionality.         back to top

NEAR Finds documents containing words in proximity to one another without respect to word order. For example, immigrant NEAR discrimination finds documents where immigrant and discrimination are next to one another in any order. immigrant NEAR10 discrimination finds documents where immigrant and discrimination are within 10 words of one another.

Operator Precedence         back to top
Boolean queries involving mixed operators are evaluated using standard Boolean precedence rules. For example in a query containing both OR and AND operators, all of the AND operators are evaluated before any of the OR operators are evaluated. The table which follows lists the precedence of each of the search operators. Operators with higher precedence are evaluated before operators with lower precedence. If you mix operators with the same precedence, for example AND and NOT, they are evaluated left-to-right. You may use parenthesis to override this precedence and specify the order of evaluation. For example, in the query (child OR girl) AND labor, the OR will be evaluated first.

Highest (  )
  NEAR (evaluated left to right)
  AND, NOT (evaluated left to right)
Lowest OR

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